Diabetes Symptoms, treatment, and diagnosis

Diabetes is when a person doesn’t produce enough insulin or their cells don’t respond to insulin. Insulin is essential because it transports glucose from the blood into the cells of the body. Insulin also has many other metabolic effects.


The body uses glucose from the food it eats to produce energy. The glucose in your blood will remain if insulin isn’t working correctly or isn’t available to move glucose from the blood into cells. High blood glucose levels can be dangerous and cells that are unable to get enough glucose will not function properly.

Types of diabetes

It is a metabolic condition that results in high blood sugar. Insulin is a hormone that moves sugar from your blood into your cells for storage or use as energy. This is a condition in which your body doesn’t produce enough insulin or can not use it effectively.

High blood sugar levels can cause damage to your eyes, nerves, kidneys, and other organs if left untreated.

There are several types of diabetes:-

  • Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The immune system attacks and destroys cells in the pancreas, where insulin is made. This attack is not understood. About 10 percent of people with diabetes have this type.
  • Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body becomes resistant to insulin, and sugar builds up in your blood.
  • Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar is higher than normal, but it’s not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2.
  • Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar during pregnancy. This type which is caused by insulin-blocking hormones that are produced in the placenta.

A rare condition called diabetes insipidus is not related to diabetes mellitus, although it has a similar name. This is a condition where your kidneys take too much fluid out of your body.

Signs and symptoms of diabetes

Rising blood sugar can lead to diabetes symptoms.

General symptoms

These are the main symptoms of diabetes:-

  • Increased hunger
  • Increased thirst
  • weight loss
  • frequent urination
  • blurry vision
  • extreme fatigue
  • sores that don’t heal

Men’s symptoms

Men with diabetes may experience a reduced sex drive, erectile dysfunction (ED), poor muscle strength, and other symptoms.

Symptoms in women

Diabetes can also cause symptoms like yeast infections, dry skin, and urinary tract infections in women.

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 symptoms can include:

  • extreme hunger
  • Increased thirst
  • unintentional weight loss
  • frequent urination
  • Blurred vision
  • tiredness

It can also cause mood changes.

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 symptoms can include:

  • Increases hunger
  • Increased thirst
  • Increased urination
  • Blurred vision
  • tiredness
  • Sores that take a long time to heal

Recurrent infections may also be caused by it. It is because high glucose levels make it more difficult for the body’s healing process.

Causes and Treatments for Diabetes

Each type of diabetes is associated with different causes.

Type 1

Type 1 diabetes is not something doctors are able to pinpoint. For some reason, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.

Some people may have genes that play a part in their health. A virus could also trigger an immune system attack.

Type 2

Type 2 diabetes stems from a combination of genetics and lifestyle factors. Being overweight or obese increases your risk too. Carrying extra weight, especially in your belly, makes your cells more resistant to the effects of insulin on your blood sugar.


This condition is common in families. Type 2 diabetes is more common in families with members who share the same genes.

Treatment for diabetes

There are many medications doctors can use to treat diabetes. Some drugs can be taken orally, while others are administered intramuscularly.

Type 1

Insulin is the main treatment for type 1 diabetes. It replaces the hormone that your body isn’t able to produce.

Four types of insulin are most common. You can tell the difference by how fast they work and how long they last.

  • The rapid-acting insulin works in 15 minutes. It lasts for three to four hours.
  • Insulin that is short-acting starts working within 30 minutes. It lasts between 6 and 8 hours.
  • Intermediate-acting insulin works in a matter of minutes and can last for 12 to 18 hours.
  • Insulin that is long-acting starts working within a few hours of injection. It lasts for 24 hours or more.

Type 2

Type 2 diabetes can be managed with diet and exercise. You may need medication if lifestyle changes don’t work.

These drugs can lower your blood sugar in many ways.

Different types of drugsHow they workExample(s)
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitorsSlow down your body’s digestion of starchy and sugary foodsAcarbose (Precose) and miglitol (Glyset)
BiguanidesReduce the amount of glucose your liver makesMetformin (Glucophage)
DPP-4 inhibitorsYou can improve your blood sugar levels without making them too lowLinagliptin (Tradjenta), saxagliptin (Onglyza), and sitagliptin (Januvia)
Glucagon-like peptidesModify the way that insulin is produced in your bodyTrulicity, exenatide (Byetta), and dulaglutide
MeglitinidesTo release more insulin, stimulate your pancreasNateglinide, Starlix, and repaglinide, Randin
Inhibitors of SGLT2Increase the amount of glucose in your urineCanagliflozin (Invokana) and dapagliflozin (Farxiga)
SulfonylureasTo release more insulin, stimulate your pancreasGlyburide (DiaBeta Glynase), glipizide, (Glucotrol), glimepiride(Amaryl).
ThiazolidinedionesHelp insulin work betterPioglitazone, Actos, and rosiglitazone, Avandia

Sometimes, you may need to take multiple of these drugs. Insulin is also used by some people with type 2 diabetes.

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